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Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors is a topic covered in the Pediatric Surgery NaT.

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Germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare neoplasms seen in children and adults with a range of primary sites, histology and clinical behavior. They are classified together due to their common origin of primitive germ cells [1]. GCTs arise in a variety of locations - most commonly the ovary, testis, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, cervical and sacrococcygeal regions.

This topic focuses on germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, retroperitoneal and cervical regions as these are the most common nongonadal sites. However, one should be aware that germ cell tumors also rarely arise in other locations such as intracranial, within solid organs (e.g. kidney, liver) and even in soft tissue spaces [2][3].

The presentation of GCTs occurs in a bimodal distribution with peaks in infancy and adolescence. Those arising in the teenage years are most commonly gonadal and mediastinal. The general treatment of GCTs includes complete surgical resection and a discerning use of adjunctive chemotherapy.

see also Cervical Germ Cell Tumors, Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors, Retroperitoneal Germ Cell Tumors, Germ Cell Ovarian Tumors, Testicular Tumors,Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

content in these topics is referenced in SCORE Teratoma overview

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Last updated: October 24, 2018


Galganski, Laura, and Rebecca Stark. "Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors." Pediatric Surgery NaT, American Pediatric Surgical Association, 2018. APSA Webapp, www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829680/all/Extragonadal_Germ_Cell_Tumors.
Galganski L, Stark R. Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors. In: Waldhausen J, Powell D, Hirschl R, eds. Pediatric Surgery NaT. American Pediatric Surgical Association; 2018. https://www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829680/all/Extragonadal_Germ_Cell_Tumors. Accessed June 16, 2019.
Galganski, L., & Stark, R. (2018). Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors. In Waldhausen, J., Powell, D., & Hirschl, R. (Eds.), Pediatric Surgery NaT. Available from https://www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829680/all/Extragonadal_Germ_Cell_Tumors
Galganski L, Stark R. Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors [Internet]. In: Waldhausen J, Powell D, Hirschl R, editors. Pediatric Surgery NaT. American Pediatric Surgical Association; 2018. [cited 2019 June 16]. Available from: https://www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829680/all/Extragonadal_Germ_Cell_Tumors.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors ID - 829680 A1 - Galganski,Laura,MD AU - Stark,Rebecca,MD ED - Waldhausen,John, ED - Powell,David, ED - Hirschl,Ron, Y1 - 2018/10/24/ BT - Pediatric Surgery NaT UR - https://www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829680/all/Extragonadal_Germ_Cell_Tumors PB - American Pediatric Surgical Association DB - APSA Webapp DP - Unbound Medicine ER -