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Achalasia is a topic covered in the Pediatric Surgery NaT.

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Achalasia of the esophagus is a rare condition characterized by three abnormal findings in esophageal motility - the absence of peristalsis, a high resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the failure of receptive relaxation of the LES [1][2]. The result of these three motility issues is a progressive dysphagia to solids and then liquids. The condition was first described in 1672 by Sir Thomas Willis and the term achalasia ("failure to relax") was coined by Hurt and Rake in 1929 [3]. There are both primary and secondary forms of achalasia – primary implying the more common classic form of idiopathic condition whereas secondary cases are due to more defined events such as Chagas disease (infection with trypanosoma cruzii) endemic to certain areas of South America or spinal cord injury that can result in an autonomic dysfunction resembling achalasia [4].

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Last updated: November 16, 2018


Hamilton, Nicholas A, et al. "Achalasia." Pediatric Surgery NaT, American Pediatric Surgical Association, 2018. APSA Webapp, www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829667/all/Achalasia.
Hamilton NA, Islam S, Petrosyan, MD M, Kane T, Wall J. Achalasia. In: Waldhausen J, Powell D, Hirschl R, eds. Pediatric Surgery NaT. American Pediatric Surgical Association; 2018. https://www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829667/all/Achalasia. Accessed July 17, 2019.
Hamilton, N. A., Islam, S., Petrosyan, MD, M., Kane, T., & Wall, J. (2018). Achalasia. In Waldhausen, J., Powell, D., & Hirschl, R. (Eds.), Pediatric Surgery NaT. Available from https://www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829667/all/Achalasia
Hamilton NA, Islam S, Petrosyan, MD M, Kane T, Wall J. Achalasia [Internet]. In: Waldhausen J, Powell D, Hirschl R, editors. Pediatric Surgery NaT. American Pediatric Surgical Association; 2018. [cited 2019 July 17]. Available from: https://www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829667/all/Achalasia.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Achalasia ID - 829667 A1 - Hamilton,Nicholas,MD AU - Islam,Saleem,MD, MPH AU - Petrosyan, MD,Mikael , AU - Kane,Timothy,MD AU - Wall,James,MD ED - Waldhausen,John, ED - Powell,David, ED - Hirschl,Ron, Y1 - 2018/11/16/ BT - Pediatric Surgery NaT UR - https://www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829667/all/Achalasia PB - American Pediatric Surgical Association DB - APSA Webapp DP - Unbound Medicine ER -