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Testicular tumors are divided by age into prepubertal, usually less than five years of age, and pubertal. Most prepubertal testicular masses are benign and thus careful consideration of testicular sparing resection is important . Most malignant prepubertal tumors are stage I pure yolk sac tumors managed with orchiectomy and observation of tumor marker decline. Most pubertal masses are malignant mixed histology and initial orchiectomy is indicated. Postoperatively, stage I tumors are managed with observation and higher stages with surgery and chemotherapy. Four year event free survival (EFS) is 74% with younger age, pure yolk sac and lack of lymphovascular invasion associated with improved EFS. Overall survival is 100% and reflective of the efficacy of chemotherapy . Survival for stage II patients is also 100% and stages III and IV around 96%. Surgeons play a critical role in appropriate staging, conducting an appropriate orchiectomy and, less commonly, surgery in the retroperitoneum.
see also Paratesticular Rhabdomyosarcomaand Orchiectomy for Tumor