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What is a mesoblastic nephroma?
Congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) is the most common renal tumor in neonates and infants less thansix months of age. CMN may be identified on prenatal ultrasound. More commonly, infants present with an abdominal mass. Paraneoplastic syndromes such as hypertension or hypercalcemia are possible. Pathologically, CMNs are divided into three groups – classic, cellular and mixed. The classic form is most common and effectively treated with complete resection. The cellular form has a propensity to recur locally or metastasize. CMN’s generally present at an early stage and have a favorable overall prognosis.
This mesenchymal renal tumor was first described by Bolande et al in 1967 . The authors presented a series of eight renal tumors in infants younger than three months of age. Nephrectomy was performed in all cases. One child died in the postoperative period; the others showed no evidence of tumor recurrence.