Poland syndrome is a congenital condition characterized by variable defects Including agenesis of the pectoralis major, absence or hypoplasia of the pectoralis minor, a varying number of rib defects, anomalies of the breast and nipple, a lack of subcutaneous tissue, an absence of pectoral and axillary hair, and hand anomalies . Of these, the absence of the pectoralis major is the most common component of Poland syndromeIn 1841, Sir Alfred Poland, a British surgeon, was the first to describe the association of the absence of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle with an ipsilateral upper extremity deficiency. He described the syndrome when he was a student. However, it wasn’t until 1962 that the nomenclature of Poland syndrome was first used by Dr. Patrick Clarkson. Other non-eponymous terms used to describe the condition include "pectoral aplasia-dysdactylia syndrome" or "hand and ipsilateral thorax syndrome" .
Poland syndrome is rare, with a sporadic occurrence estimated at 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births . A familial component is present in less than one percent of patients. It has also been associated with Moebius syndrome which involves unilateral or bilateral facial palsy and impaired ocular abduction . The two may have a common etiology, although this has yet to be determined .
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