Practicing Surgeons' Curriculum


This collection of infographics is generated by the APSA educational committee as a curriculum to keep currently practicing surgeons up to date.

Please submit your questions, comments and feedback (including suggestions for future topics) to


In which areas of pediatric surgery can you impact the inappropriate use of antibiotics?

antibiotic stewardship
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[1][2][3] (for more see Surgical Infection)

video link Antibiotic Stewardship 2019 Top Educational Content talk

What is the correct transfusion threshold in critically ill or injured children?

conservative transfusion threshold
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[4][5][6][7][8] (for more see Transfusion and Coagulation Therapy)

video links Hemostatic Transfusion and Goal Directed Transfusion from the APSA 2020 virtual meeting

Which children truly need cervical spine imaging after trauma?

cervical spine injury imaging
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[9][10] (for more see Cervical Spine Trauma)

video link Cervical Spine Trauma Imaging 2019 Top Educational Content talk

What is he correct fluid to use when resuscitating a child with a burn?

burn resuscitation
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infographic courtesy of

[11][12] (for more see Burns)

When should injured children receive blood rather than crystalloid?

early use of blood
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[8][13][14][15][16] (for more see Trauma Resuscitation and Initial Evaluation)

Do asymptomatic patients with a history of esophageal atresia need endoscopic surveillance?

endoscopic surveillance in esophageal atresia
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infographic courtesy of Jay Meisner and Benjamin Zendejas

[17][18][19] (for more see Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula)

What are the considerations for gonadal preservation in disorders of sex development?

gonadal preservation in DSD
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[20][21][22] (for more see Disorders of Sex Development)

How does one determine if a patient with inflammatory bowel disease will require surgery?

indications for surgery in IBD
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[23][24][25] (for more see Crohn Disease and Ulcerative Colitis)

video link The effect of biologics in the surgical management of IBD 2020 Top Educational Content talk

How do you prevent, detect and treat neonatal gas embolism during laparoscopy?

gas embolus during infant laparoscopy
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video link Infant Gas Embolus 2020 Top Educational Content talk

How does hospital acquired hyponatremia occur and what is the best way to prevent it?

isotonic maintenance fluids
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[30][31] (for more see Fluid and Electrolytes)

What is the baseline management strategy for severe pediatric traumatic brain injury?

management of traumatic brain injury
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[32][33] (for more see Traumatic Brain Injury)

What are the outcomes for nonoperative management of acute appendicitis?

nonoperative appendicitis outcomes
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[34][35] (for more see Appendicitis)

How can we optimize ovarian preservation in patients with ovarian masses?

ovarian preservation
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[36][37][38] (for more see Ovarian Tumors )

What is the optimal management of thoracostomy tubes in children with parapneumonic effusions?

chest tubes in empyema
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[39][40][41] (for more see Parapneumonic Effusion and Empyema)

What are the current pediatric surviving sepsis guidelines?

surviving sepsis guidelines
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[42][43] (for more see Surgical Infection)

video link Surviving Sepsis Guidelines 2019 Top Educational Content talk)

What factors lead to physician burnout and what impact can it have?

surgeon wellness
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What are the advantages of minimally invasive surgical techniques in pilonidal disease?

pilonidal excision
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[47][48][49][50] (for more see Pilonidal Disease)

What are the most current APSA evidence-based guidelines regarding blunt solid organ injuries in children?

solid organ injury guidelines
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[8][51][52][53] (for more see Liver and Spleen Trauma)

Does every primary spontaneous pneumothorax require an intervention?

spontaneous pneumothorax
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[54][55] (for more see Spontaneous Pneumothorax)

What criteria do you use to determine when an infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia is ready for surgical repair?

surgery for CDH
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[56][57] (for more see Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)

How do you use a viscoelastic assay to guide transfusion requirements in bleeding patients?

viscoelastic assay
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[58][59] (for more see Transfusion and Coagulation Therapy )

Which pediatric trauma patients should receive venous thromboembolism prophylaxis?

venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in trauma
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[60][61][62][63][64] (for more see Transfusion and Coagulation Therapy)

What is the minimum number of lymph nodes to sample for adequate staging during a Wilms tumor resection?

Wilms tumor lymph node sampling
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[65][66][67] (for more see Wilms Tumor)


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  65. Heaton TE, Nathan JD, Doski JD, Ehrlich PF. Handbook for Children with Renal Tumors. Cancer Committee of the American Pediatric Surgical Association. 2018